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Magnesium thermal reduction of titanium tetrachloride to produce sponge titanium has many dangers in the production process, such as high temperature scalding, electric shock, poisoning and infarction, acid burning, lifting danger, fire explosion and radioactive damage. It is a kind of dangerous property production.
(1) Ilmenite is smelted in electric arc furnace to produce high titanium slag, and asphalt is manipulated by pelletizing, which is easy to cause poisoning; During smelting, the temperature of the electric arc furnace is high, which is easy to be splashed and burned by the melt, and there is a risk of electric shock.
(2) When boiling chlorine gas is used for chlorination to produce titanium tetrachloride, toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride and phosgene (CoCl2) are also generated in the furnace, which leak out all the way with the slag and chlorine gas in each shift. They all cause acute poisoning like chlorine gas. Because there is often carbon monoxide in the chlorination furnace system and pipeline, if the welding is carried out without proper liquidation, explosion will occur. Condensing titanium tetrachloride, operating ammonia refrigerator, and there is a risk of ammonia poisoning.
(3) From chlorination, refining to reduction, the whole titanium tetrachloride transmission pipeline system has long lines, many valves and negotiations, and is prone to leakage; From chlorination to refining, titanium tetrachloride often causes "tank overflow" because the storage tank is too full. Titanium tetrachloride absorbs water with air to generate hydrogen chloride, resulting in white fog. It is the material of military smoke bomb. Titanium tetrachloride can easily cause chemical burns and poisoning.
(4) Reduction and distillation are vacuum heating. They are produced under the premise of high temperature and pressure. They are required to be highly sealed. If there is leakage and water inflow, it will explode. Filling with inert gas argon, improper operation, there is a risk of infarction. In the process of loading and discharging of reduction distillation, frequent placement and disassembly operations shall be carried out, and the crane shall be operated for a long time. There are great dangers such as lifting hazards. Reduction and distillation furnaces are electric heating furnaces. The furnace is deep, and the operators can easily get electric shock, scald and fall.
(5) Sponge titanium is cut with high-pressure oil press, and then screened, transported and packaged into barrels. In this process, there is a risk of crushing and strangulation. There is a danger of fire and explosion due to excessive accumulation of cut powder in the plant.
(6) In the whole production process, there are many faults and residues. When dealing with faults, honing equipment and clearing residues, it is easy to run out of melt and chlorine.
(7) Because ilmenite often contains radioactive substances, it is polymerized in chlorinated waste residue after smelting and chlorination. Therefore, there is radioactive damage to human body from ilmenite batching and pelletizing, electric furnace smelting to chlorination and slag discharge.
Specific precautions include:
(1) Chlorine gas is manipulated in the production of titanium fan, and hydrogen chloride is easy to be generated, which is highly corrosive. Therefore, it is important to do a good job in the construction of plants and the anti-corrosion of equipment and pipelines, especially the chlorination refining system. It is necessary to do a good job in all maintenance and regular training to keep it in a delicate condition.
(2) In terms of personal protective equipment, operators will be given heat and acid resistant woolen clothes, hats and gloves. Acid resistant rubber boots, usually heat-resistant shoes, shall be issued to wet and acid operated posts, and dust masks, gas masks or gas masks shall be issued according to the type of work and the risk of dust and poison. At the same time, when there are different kinds of toxic gas damage, operators should wear isolation gas masks - oxygen respirators in order to effectively ensure safety. For dust-proof and gas-proof masks, the pollution filter layer shall be updated in real time. The gas mask shall be updated in real time, and the sealing function of the mask shall be checked. For oxygen respirators, special personnel should be assigned to carry out serious search, inspection and maintenance.
(3) According to the post of the type of work and the premise of operation, the safety operation regulations shall be seriously formulated, which shall not only include the key points of normal cooperative safety protection, but also understand the prominent hazards and protection skills of the operation of the type of work, and enable the workers to grasp and consciously implement them. If titanium tetrachloride is sent to the refining process, the feeding signal shall be given first to delimit the chlorination process. After receiving the signal from the refining process, check the liquid level of the storage tank, the feed pipe and waste gas balance pipe, as well as the opening and closing of the valve. After confirming that it is complete and correct, issue the signal of permission to feed. The chlorination process can only be transported after receiving the signal. Only in this way can we guard against "cans". When the reduction furnace and distillation furnace are placed and disassembled, personnel shall be designated to go up and down from the special wooden ladder; Before entering the furnace, the electrician shall cut off the power and hang the sign of "no switching on when someone is working".
(4) When clearing the pipeline sedimentation of the chlorination system and setting the residual mud of equipment and equipment, the face is not facing the discharge outlet; For hydrolysis, the water volume shall be controlled and shall not be discharged directly into the water channel, so as to prevent titanium tetrachloride from collapsing and being burned and sewer explosion.
(5) All water-cooled, vacuum and pressurized equipment and furnishings must be strictly pressurized and closely implemented, and can only be put into use after passing the training.
(6) When cutting and packaging sponge titanium workshop, it is necessary to remove the dust of sponge titanium. Remove dust and debris and be careful of fire. If sponge titanium is on fire, it is forbidden to put out the fire with water, and there should be additional special fire-fighting methods.
(7) The work clothes of workers who have a rough idea of radioactive dust should be stored separately, and it is absolutely forbidden to wear them home. Chlorinated dust collection and radioactive material waste residue shall not be mixed with ordinary waste residue. During disposal, they must be transported out of the factory by special vehicle and disposed according to the requirements of national conditions and regulations.